This section of our website is dedicated to building a reference library of information on all aspects of blade-lift type vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). This library contains the references used in these web pages, along with others that we have collected as part of our research and development process.

We welcome submissions  that are based on sound scientific methods and that fall into broad subject areas: Impacts and Resources,  VAWTs and Modeling; Wake and Vertical Mixing; and Miscellaneous. Our goal is for this library to become the “go-to” place to find VAWT-related information. Our approach is to let its structure evolve over time. This is our start. We welcome your feedback and help.


Even though VAWTs have been around almost as long as HAWTs, there is relatively little science about them and their impacts and benefits. This section of the library covers the information available on the impacts of VAWTs, it is divided into three parts: environment, wildlife and resources.


There is a dearth of information on near-ground wind resources, as most wind atlases and documentation is for wind speeds at 30-plus meters (98 ft) above the ground and not at 11-15m (36-49 ft), which is the "hub" height of the WHI G168 VAWTs.

This section of the library is divided into three parts: environment, wildlife and resources. The latter section is where we plan to add wind atlases and other resources that would be useful to people interested in the potential of shorter VAWTs for their projects.

This wind speed map of the Solano Wind Resource Area is at 30m above ground level. The map underestimates the wind speeds at 30m because the CEC used the 50m wind speed map and used a standard 0.15 wind shear exponent to estimate the 30m winds when the wind shears across the area range from 0.05 to 0.15.


VAWT technology is not as advanced in its engineering and modeling as that of its horizontal axis cousin. One step toward resolving this is to find and make available the research that has been done. This library section has begun that process. WHI welcomes research papers and other material, regardless of the date issued, to add to the body of knowledge about all aspects of VAWTs. Someday, vertical axis technology will be as sophisticated and well known as that of HAWTs. We hope this library helps achieve that vision. Please send us findings that might be useful to others.

WHI News

Periodically, Wind Harvest International issues press releases and updates about the company and our technology. These will be listed here in chronological order.

More information on the Wind Harvest Company Founders can be found on our About Us Page Here.

Dramatically increase wind farm output while protecting wildlife
Paper being prepared for peer review (updated 12 May 2018)

This paper will be submitted for peer review to Renewable Energy Focus  after receiving comments from the publication of excerpts in the April issue of Windpower Engineering.  Send comments and suggestions to Kevin Wolf, Chief Operating Officer, Wind Harvest International,

The relatively small areas in California with excellent wind resources, and the limits on placing more horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) in them justify both the use of EPIC funds to evaluate how valuable the state's near-ground wind resources could become and the investment in R&D needed for their development and build out.

WHI Submits Grant Proposal to CEC's EPIC Program
Kevin Wolf, Wind Harvest International Press Release, 21 June 2017

Wind Harvest International submitted a $1.25 million proposal to the California Energy Commission's EPIC Program to study how vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) similar to the WHI Harvester 70 create synergistic benefits when installed among horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), and how they can be safely placed in areas with endangered species.

Entitled "Researching and developing VAWTs potential to double the capacities of California's wind farms while preventing harm to birds," the grant, if awarded, would research how integrating shorter VAWTs with taller traditional wind turbines would lead to increasing the energy capacity of existing wind farms without requiring costly new infrastructure.

First Small-Sized Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Ready for Certification
Kevin Wolf, Wind Harvest International Press Release, 15 May 2017

Wind Harvest International has submitted the Design Evaluation for the certification of its 70kW WHI VAWT Model Harvester to the ICC-SRCC's Small Wind Certification program. The ICC-SRCC oversees the U.S certification of small and medium wind turbines. The Design Evaluation includes sections on the turbines description and specifications, its fatigues life, its frequency response and its components' capabilities to withstand Class II extreme loads, and follows prototype testing as the first step in the certification process.

A 5 x 5 x 1/2-meter thick slab of rbar and concrete was poured in early January at the Underwriters Laboratories' and West Texas A&M University's Advanced Wind Turbine Testing Facility near Canyon, Texas, in preparation for the installation and certification of Wind Harvest International's Harvester VAWTs.

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