Wallace P. Erickson, Gregory D. Johnson, and David P. Young Jr., USDA Forest Service, 2005
We estimate that from 500 million to possibly over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to anthropogenic sources including collisions with human-made structures such as vehicles, buildings and windows, power lines, communication towers, and wind turbines; electrocutions; oil spills and other contaminants; pesticides; cat predation; and commercial fishing by-catch. Many of the deaths from these sources would be considered unlawful take under federal laws such as the Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. In this paper, we summarize this literature and provide the basis for the mortality projections for many of the apparent significant...
R.H.W. Langston and J.D. Pullan, RSPB/Birdlife, November 2004
Ralph G. Powlesland, Science For Conservation 289, Department of Conservation, January 2009
The impacts of wind farms on New Zealand bird species and populations are unknown. This document reviews available literature on the impacts of on shore wind farms on birds, based on studies in other countries. A key finding is that wind farms tend to have variable effects on bird populations, which can be species-,season- and/or site-specific. The impacts include collision fatalities, habitat loss and disturbance resulting in displacement. The main factors that contribute to collision fatalities are proximity to areas of high bird density or frequency of movements (migration routes, staging areas, wintering areas), bird species (some are more prone to collision or displacement than others), landscape features that concentrate...
BBC News, 23 June 2006
Wind farm turbine blades are killing a key population of Europe's largest bird of prey, UK wildlife campaigners warn.