This section of our website is dedicated to building a reference library of information on all aspects of blade-lift type vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) including the references used in these web pages and the papers we’ve published.  We add new material as we find it and welcome your suggestions.


Even though VAWTs have been around almost as long as HAWTs, there is relatively little peer reviewed and published about them and their impacts and benefits. This section of the library covers the information available on the impacts of VAWTs, it is divided into two parts: environment and wildlife.

Wind turbines are not often placed in important bird and bat habitat. The overall harm they  cause to wildlife is exponentially lower than impacts from cats, buildings, moving vehicles, and habitat loss.


There is a dearth of published information on near-ground wind resources, as most wind atlases and reports used data collected at or extrapolated to 30-100+m above ground level.  The main exception to this can be found in data summarized in the California Energy Commission 1985 Wind Atlas when shorter FloWind VAWTs were expected to be a significant mix in the state’s early wind projects.

The key reason there are good to excellent wind speeds at 10-25m above ground level in all of California’s major wind resource areas is the ocean cooled air that accelerates to the hotter inland areas through narrow passes and over hills and ridgelines.  The 2005 SMUD report on their Solano wind farms stated “During mid-day and into the late afternoon, the wind shear exponent actually goes negative for a few hours indicating that the wind speed is higher near the surface than aloft.”

Please send us any reports, data or other information on near ground wind resources anywhere in the world.  Thank you.


VAWT technology is not as advanced in its engineering and modeling as that of its horizontal axis cousin. One step toward resolving this is to find and make available the research that has already been done. This library section has begun that process. WHI welcomes research papers and other material, regardless of the date issued, to add to the body of knowledge about all aspects of VAWTs. Someday, vertical axis technology will be as sophisticated and well known as that of HAWTs. We hope this library helps advance that vision.

WHI News

Periodically, Wind Harvest International issues press releases and updates about the company and our technology. These will be listed here in chronological order.

More information on the Wind Harvest Company Founders can be found on our About Us Page Here.

Dramatically increase wind farm output while protecting wildlife
Paper being prepared for peer review (updated 12 May 2018)

This paper will be submitted for peer review to Renewable Energy Focus  after receiving comments from the publication of excerpts in the April issue of Windpower Engineering.  Send comments and suggestions to Kevin Wolf, Chief Operating Officer, Wind Harvest International,

The relatively small areas in California with excellent wind resources, and the limits on placing more horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) in them justify both the use of EPIC funds to evaluate how valuable the state's near-ground wind resources could become and the investment in R&D needed for their development and build out.

WHI Submits Grant Proposal to CEC's EPIC Program
Kevin Wolf, Wind Harvest International Press Release, 21 June 2017

Wind Harvest International submitted a $1.25 million proposal to the California Energy Commission's EPIC Program to study how vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) similar to the WHI Harvester 70 create synergistic benefits when installed among horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), and how they can be safely placed in areas with endangered species.

Entitled "Researching and developing VAWTs potential to double the capacities of California's wind farms while preventing harm to birds," the grant, if awarded, would research how integrating shorter VAWTs with taller traditional wind turbines would lead to increasing the energy capacity of existing wind farms without requiring costly new infrastructure.

First Small-Sized Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Ready for Certification
Kevin Wolf, Wind Harvest International Press Release, 15 May 2017

Wind Harvest International has submitted the Design Evaluation for the certification of its 70kW WHI VAWT Model Harvester to the ICC-SRCC's Small Wind Certification program. The ICC-SRCC oversees the U.S certification of small and medium wind turbines. The Design Evaluation includes sections on the turbines description and specifications, its fatigues life, its frequency response and its components' capabilities to withstand Class II extreme loads, and follows prototype testing as the first step in the certification process.

A 5 x 5 x 1/2-meter thick slab of rbar and concrete was poured in early January at the Underwriters Laboratories' and West Texas A&M University's Advanced Wind Turbine Testing Facility near Canyon, Texas, in preparation for the installation and certification of Wind Harvest International's Harvester VAWTs.

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