A Modeling Approach to Infer the Effects of Wind Farms on Landscape Connectivity for Bats

Federica Roscioni, Hugo Rebelo, Danilo Russo, Maria Laura Carranza, Mirko Di Febbraro, Anna Loy, Lanscape Ecol, 12 April 2014

Little is known about the potentially disrupting effects of wind farms on the habitat connectivity of flying vertebrates at the landscape scale. We developed a regional-scale model to assess the wind farm impact on bat migration and commuting routes. The model was implemented for the bat Nyctalus leisleri in a region of central Italy currently undergoing considerable wind farm development. A Species Distribution Model (SDM) for N. leisleri was generated using the MaxEnt algorithm based on 47 presence records (reduced to 19 after the autocorrelation procedure) and 10 environmental variables derived from topographic and land cover maps. We used the SDM to create a map of connectivity using the software...

Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Bats and Birds

Thomas H. Kunz, Edward B. Arnett, Brian M. Cooper, Wallace P. Erickson, Ronald P. Larkin, Todd Mabee, Michael L. Morrison, M. Dale Strickland, and Joseph M. Szewczak, Journal of Wildlife Management, 2007

Our purpose is to provide researchers, consultants, decision-makers, and other stakeholders with guidance to methods and metrics for investigating nocturnally active birds and bats in relation to utility-scale wind-energy development. The primary objectives of such studies are to 1) assess potential impacts on resident and migratory species, 2) quantify fatality rates on resident and migratory populations, 3) determine the causes of bird and bat fatalities, and 4) develop, assess, and implement methods for reducing risks to bird and bat populations and their habitats.

Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines

Jason W. Horn, Edward B Arnett, Thomas H. Kunz, The journal of Wildlife Management, 2008

Wind power is one of the fastest growing sectors of the energy industry. Recent studies have reported large numbers of migratory tree-roosting bats being killed at utility-scale wind power facilities, especially in the eastern United States. We used thermal infrared (TIR) cameras to assess the flight behavior of bats at wind turbines because this technology makes it possible to observe the nocturnal behavior of bats and birds independently of supplemental light sources. We conducted this study at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center in Tucker County, West Virginia, USA, where hundred...

The fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component typically uses representative samples of cyclic loads to determine lifetime loads. In this paper, several techniques currently in use are compared to one another based on fatigue life analyses. The generalized Weibull fitting technique is used to remove the artificial truncation of large-amplitude cycles that is inherent in relatively short data sets. Using data from the Sandia/DOE 34-m Test Bed, the generalized Weibull fitting technique is shown to be excellent for matching the body of the distribution of cyclic loads and for extrapolating the tail of the distribution. However, the data also illustrate that the fitting technique is not a substitute for an adequate data base.

How Proper Planning And A General Understanding of Bats Help Reduce Impacts

Nic Sharpley, Windpower Engineering & Development, 25 June 2013

Unfortunately, the wind industry does not yet have a handle on the issue of the rising bat mortality rate. Researchers initially believed bat deaths at wind farms were the same as birds, but autopsies have revealed a more complex situation. Currently, there is no quick fix to completely end bat fatalities, but understanding bat migration and roosting can lessen impacts.

Why Bats Can’t See Wind Turbines

David Gallagher, Cal Poly BIO 502, 24 January 2013

 If you have driven over Tehachapi Pass on Highway 58, you probably could not have helped but notice the 500 or so wind turbines that dot the ridges. These turbines make-up the Alta Wind Energy Center, the largest wind farm in the United States at 1,320 Mega-Watts. Wind energy in the United States and around the world is expanding quickly.

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