LBNL, Ryan Wiser, Mark Bollinger pp. 35.
This report shows that in the early years (1982-2004) of HAWT development, the industry realized a “learning curve” of 14.4%, meaning that costs per kWh dropped at this rate year on year. WHI predicts that VAWTs will realize a similar “learning curve” as they increase in sales.
World Wind Energy Association, June 2016
“Worldwide wind capacity reached 456 GWs” and would likely grow at 8-10% in 2016, a slower pace than had been achieve in recent years. A growth of 50,000 MWs per year would be slow, and in 13 years, would result in the 1M+ MWs of installed world wide.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory July 2014
The data from the Life Cycle Harmonization Project show that life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from technologies powered by renewable resources are generally less than from those powered by fossil fuel-based resources. Only the very highest estimates for biopower overlap with the range of a fossil-fueled technology, and the central tendencies of all renewable technologies are between 400 and 1,000 g CO2eq/kWh lower than their fossil-fueled counterparts without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).
US Environmental Protection Agency, 2015
In 2012, a total of 411 power plants used coal to generate at least 95% of their electricity (EPA 2015). These plants emitted 1,412,038,949 metric tons of CO2 in 2012. Carbon dioxide emissions per power plant were calculated by dividing the total emissions from power plants whose primary source of fuel was coal by the number of power plants.
WHIs proposal to the CECs EPIC Program
The three major factors leading to a projected lower Leveled Cost of Energy for VAWT created wind energy in CA than the alternatives are, they make double use of existing wind farm assets, they can be installed in high energy land where HAWTS can't, and they can achieve the efficiencies of horizontal axis wind turbines. The table present in this document varies only these three factors when comparing VAWTs in existing wind farms to the other options.